The codex Mendocino was commissioned by viceroy antonio de mendoza in 1525 to learn about the tribute system and other indigenous practices to be adapted to Spanish rule. However, it is on European paper. 21 Although bark paper was banned, it did not completely disappear. In the early colonial period, there was a shortage of European paper, which made it necessary to use the indigenous version on occasion. 21 During the evangelization process, amate, along essay with a paste made from corn canes was appropriated by missionaries to create Christian images, mostly in the 16th and 17th century. 9 22 In addition, among the indigenous, paper continued to be made clandestinely for ritual purposes. In 1569, friar diego de mendoza observed several indigenous carrying offerings of paper, copal and woven mats to the lakes inside the nevado de toluca volcano as offerings. 22 The most successful at keeping paper making traditions alive were certain indigenous groups living in the la huasteca, ixhuatlán and Chicontepec in the north of Veracruz and some villages in Hidalgo.
19 Colonial period to 20th century edit When the Spanish arrived, they noted the production of writing codices and paper, which was also made from maguey and palm fibers as well as bark. It was specifically noted by pedro mártir de Anglería. 20 After the conquest, indigenous paper, especially bark paper lost its value as a tribute item not only because the Spanish preferred European paper but also because bark paper's connection to indigenous religion caused it to be banned. 12 The justification for the banning of amate was that it was used for magic and witchcraft. 4 This was part of the Spaniard's efforts to mass convert the indigenous to catholicism, which included the mass burning of codices, which contained most of the native history as well as cultural and natural knowledge. 11 Only 16 of 500 surviving codices were written before the conquest. The other, post-conquest books were written on bark paper although a few were written on European paper, cotton, or animal hides. They were largely the work of missionaries, such as Bernardino de sahagún, who were interested in recording the history and knowledge of the indigenous people. Some of the important codices of this type include codex sierra, codex la cruz badiano and Codex Florentino.
These include the Dresden Codex from the yucatán, the fejérváry-mayer Codex from the mixteca region and the borgia codex from Oaxaca. 17 However, paper also had a sacred aspect and was used in rituals along with other items such as incense, copal, maguey thorns and rubber. 17 For ceremonial and religious events, bark paper was used in various ways: as decorations used in fertility rituals, yiataztli, a kind of bag, and as an amatetéuitl, a badge used to symbolize a prisoner's soul after sacrifice. It was also used to dress idols, priests and sacrifice victims in forms of crowns, stoles, plumes, wigs, trusses and bracelets. Paper items such as flags, skeletons and very long papers, up to the length of a man, were used as offerings, often by burning them. 18 Another important paper item for rituals was paper cut in the form of long flags or trapezoids and painted with black rubber spots to depict the characteristic of the god being honored. At a certain time of year, these were also used to ask for rain. At this time, the papers were colored blue with plumage at the spearhead.
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This paper was dissertation related to power and religion, the way through which the aztecs imposed and justified their dominance in Mesoamerica. As tribute, it represented a transaction between the dominant groups and the dominated villages. In the second phase, the paper used by the royal authorities and priests for sacred and political purposes was a way to empower and frequently register all the other sumptuary exclusive things. 15 Amate paper was created as part of a line of technologies to satisfy the human need to express and communicate. It was preceded by stone, clay and leather to transmit knowledge first in the form of pictures, and later with the Olmecs and maya through a form of hieroglyphic writing. 8 Bark paper had important advantages as it is easier to obtain than animal skins and was easier to work than other fibers.
It could be bent, shirred, glued and melded for specific finishing touches and for decoration. Two more advantages stimulated the extensive use of bark paper: its light weight and its ease of transport, which translated into great savings in time, space and labor when compared with other raw materials. 16 In the aztec era, paper retained its importance as a writing surface, especially in the production of chronicles and the keeping of records such as inventories and accounting. Codices were converted into "books" by folding into an accordion pattern. Of the approximately 500 surviving codices, about 16 date to before the conquest and are made of bark paper.
4 9 12 This paper was assigned to the royal sector, to be used as gifts on special occasions or as rewards for warriors. It was also sent to the religious elites for ritual purposes. The last share was allotted to royal scribes for the writing of codices and other records. 13 Little is known about the paper's manufacture in the pre-hispanic period. Stone beaters dating from the 6th century ce have been found, and these tools are most often found where amate trees grow.
Most are made of volcanic stone with some made of marble and granite. They are usually rectangular or circular with grooves on one or both sides to macerate the fibers. These beaters are still used by Otomi artisans, and almost all are volcanic, with an additional groove added on the side to help hold the stone. According to some early Spanish accounts, the bark was left overnight in water to soak, after which the finer inner fibers were separated from coarser outer fibers and pounded into flat sheets. But it is not known who did the work, or how the labor was divided. 14 As a tribute item, amate was assigned to the royal sector because it was not considered to be a commodity.
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Anthropologist Marion mentions that in Lacandones, in Chiapas, the maya were still manufacturing and using bark homework clothing in the 1980s. For write these reason, it was probably the maya who first propagated knowledge about bark-paper-making and spread it throughout southern Mexico, guatemala, belize, honduras, and El Salvador, when it was at its height in the pre-classic period. 8 9 However, according researcher Hans Lenz, this maya paper was likely not the amate paper known in later Mesoamerica. 4 The mayan language word for book is hun hun. 10 Amate paper was used most extensively during the Triple Alliance Empire. 11 This paper was manufactured in over 40 villages in territory controlled by the aztecs and then handed over as tribute by the conquered peoples. This amounted to about 480,000 sheets annually. Most of the production was concentrated in the modern state of Morelos, where ficus trees are abundant because of the climate.
Huitzilapa is kinds a shaft tomb culture site located northwest of Tequila volcano near the town of Magdalena. The crumpled piece of paper was found in the southern chamber of the site's shaft tomb, possibly associated with a male scribe. Rather than being produced from Trema micrantha, from which modern amate is made, the amate found at huitzilapa is made from Ficus tecolutensis. 5 Iconography (in stone) dating from the period contains depictions of items thought to be paper. For example, monument 52 from the Olmec site of San Lorenzo tenochtitlán illustrates an individual adorned with ear pennants of folded paper. 6 The oldest known surviving book made from amate paper may be the Grolier Codex, which Michael. Coe and other researchers have asserted is authentic and dated to the 12th-13th century. 7 Arguments from the 1940s to the 1970s have centered on a time of 300 ce of the use of bark clothing by the maya people. Ethnolinguistic studies lead to the names of two villages in maya territory that relate the use of bark paper, Excachaché place where white bark trusses are smoothed and yokzachuún over the white paper.
with it such as elaborate cut-outs. Contents, history edit, amate paper has a long history. This history is not only because the raw materials for its manufacture have persisted but also that the manufacture, distribution and uses have adapted to the needs and restrictions of various epochs. This history can be roughly divided into three periods: the pre-hispanic period, the Spanish colonial period to the 20th century, and from the latter 20th century to the present, marked by the paper's use as a commodity. 1 Pre-hispanic period edit The development of paper in Mesoamerica parallels that of China and Egypt, which used rice and papyrus respectively. 2 It is not known exactly where or when papermaking began in Mesoamerica. 3 4 The oldest known amate paper dates back to. It was discovered at the site of huitzilapa, jalisco.
Spiritual leaders in the small village. San Pablito, puebla were described as producing paper with "magical" properties. Foreign academics began studying this ritual use of amate in the mid-20th century, and the. Otomi people of the area began producing the paper commercially. Otomi craftspeople began selling it in cities such. Mexico city, where the paper was revived. Nahua painters in, guerrero to create "new" indigenous craft, which was then promoted by the mexican government. Through this and other innovations, essay amate paper is one of the most widely available.
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Amate spanish : amate amate from, nahuatl languages : āmatl amatɬ ) is a type of bark paper that has been manufactured in, mexico since the precontact times. It was used primarily to create codices. Amate paper was extensively produced dark and used for both communication, records, and ritual during the. Triple Alliance ; however, after the, spanish conquest, its production was mostly banned and replaced by european paper. Amate paper production never completely died, nor did the rituals associated with. It remained strongest in the rugged, remote mountainous areas of northern. Puebla and northern, veracruz states.