During the 1980s, with the eight-year IranIraq war, the curbing of short-lived freedoms of the years immediately after the revolution, and the blacklisting of most of the famous writers, Iranian literature lost much of its vitality and strength. War and economic problems distracted people from literature to some extent, and the emigration and exile of many prominent writers left a gaping void behind. This depressed atmosphere somehow lingered on up to 1997. Khatamis presidency, which brought in an energetic reform movement, created another wave of newspaper and magazine publications, creating a fertile ground for help the emergence of new literary voices. A new generation of young writers took advantage of this opportunity. Some of them, like hossein Sanapour and zoya pirzad, managed to gain critical acclaim and a large audience which had mostly ignored the literature of the preceding years. Newspapers literary pages, in addition to numerous literary prizes funded by non-governmental organisations, helped to re-energise the literary scene.
In his masterpiece, prince (1969 through the depiction of the decaying days of an aristocrat family, golshiri manages to improve on the achievements of Hedayat in the structural and linguistic aspects of the novel. Daneshvar, Iran's first female novelist, in her realist masterpiece savushun (1969 portrays chaos and mayhem in the wake of military occupation of Fars province by allied forces in the first half of 1943. In the novel, she describes the heroic battle of its female protagonist to protect her household shakespeare against these upheavals. Daneshvars depiction of the lively and numerous characters, and her dynamic portrayal of an eventful historical period, are among the novel's prominent achievements. Neighbours (1974) is set in the city of Ahvaz in southern Iran against the background of events leading to nationalisation of oil industry. It's a coming-of-age story of Khalid from his first sexual experiences to his political awakening. Mahmud's depiction of this transition is main accomplishment of this realist masterpiece. In the autumn of 1977, about one year before the revolution, goethe reading nights were organised by the Iranian Writers' Association at the german embassy's cultural section for ten consecutive nights. The reading nights, which featured 60 writers arguing mostly against censorship and political oppression, drew more than ten thousand people.
Gradual easing of the oppressive political atmosphere after the. Cia-funded coup in 1953 enabled these new voices to flourish. The decade before the 1979 revolution can be called the golden age of Iranian literature in this sense. Writers social and political influence grew rapidly throughout this period, and their works achieved massive circulation sometimes more than ten thousand copies of their first editions alone. Savushun (Simin Daneshvar Prince (Houshang Golshiri neighbours (Ahmad Mahmoud and Missing Soluch (Mahmoud Dowlatabadi are among the most notable works published in this decade. Golshiri came into contact with the latest theoretical and critical developments of literature, such as the nouveau roman movement, and read works by authors such as Alain Robbe-Grillet, marguerite duras, and Jorge luis Borges. Jong-e isfahan a literary periodical established in Isfahan by its literary circle of the time.
Scripting a comparative, literature, research Paper
The Blind Owl (1937 hedayats surrealist-melancholic masterpiece, was the first modern novel in Persian language a response to an oppressed society and the ideals of the constitutional revolution. The novels narrator, as a symbol of the overwhelmed and scorned Iranian intellectual, has been aware for some time of the 'dreadful abyss' between him and the rest of society, and now only writes for his shadow on the wall, to better know his self. From 1941 to 1953, owing to occupation by allied forces during the Second World War and the weakening of the Iranian central government, there was a boom in political activism and independent publications. Between 1941 to 1947, around 500 newspapers and journals began publication. The first Congress of Iranian Writers also convened during the same period, in the summer of 1946.
Sadegh Chubak, bozorg Alavi, jalal Al-e-ahmad, and Ebrahim Golestan are the most notable writers who started their careers during this period. What distinguished writers of this era was their deep social and political commitment. In addition, familiarity with modern literary techniques and innovations comes through in their reading of works by authors like Faulkner, hemingway, and Steinbeck. . Al-e-ahmad and Chubak went head to head in their works about patriarchal authority and religious superstitions, and tried to depict the lives of workers and the lower strata of society. Bozorg Alavi, high among the ranks of Iran's communist Tudeh Party, published the first prison writings and portrayed personal and emotional aspects of political prisoners experience in his stories. Antagonism between the modernising zeal of young students returning from abroad and underdevelopment, superstition and political oppression at home, is another recurring theme in the works of Alavi and other writers of this period. In the 1960s, a new generation of writers and poets started their careers who not only had better access to western literature and its translations, but could also build upon the experiences of the previous generation.
Iran in Writing: Past and Present, a talk at the British Library today. Iranians love poetry and it is said that all Iranians try their hand at writing poetry at least once in their lives. In Iran, it is not unusual to hear verses from poets living 600 to 900 years ago. They pop up in daily interactions, on tv and radio, and even during political speeches. Unfortunately, this widespread enthusiasm for poetry doesn't result in a strong reading culture. The public's reception of modern works of literature depends on different political, social, and economic factors, with numerous ups and downs in recent history.
In spite of a rich trove of classical works (mainly poems modern Iranian literature is less than a hundred years old. If we consider the works of Sadegh Hedayat (1903-1951) in fiction and Nima yushij (1895-1960) in poetry as the beginning of Iran's modern literature, then we can discern two influential factors in its development. First, there is a certain level of familiarity and interaction with the latest intellectual trends and literary achievements of the west. Second, a political openness at home, which brings about a suitable atmosphere for exchange of ideas and publication of new voices. The constitutional revolution of Iran (1905-1907 which resulted in the creation of parliament and the publication of numerous newspapers and journals, made suitable ground for the development of Iran's first generation of modern writers. Around the same time, the return of Iran's first graduates of European universities (made possible through government funding) brought in a new wave of modernisation, along with translations of Western literature and philosophy. Hedayat and Yushij both studied in French-speaking. Louis school in Tehran, and were familiar with contemporary western literature. Hedayat was the first to translate the works of Kafka and Chekhov, and wrote an extensive introduction for the persian edition of Kafka's stories.
Bibliography: Outline of American
The Twentieth Century: Most important writers: James joyce ( virginia woolf ( aldous Huxley ( alan Sillitoe (1928 - george Orwell ( margaret Drabble (1939 - ) Most important works: Brave new World (Aldous Huxley, 1932 look back in Anger (John Osborne, 1956 1984 (George. Many concentrated on the relationship between individual and society. In poetry, the "movement" put emphasis on the ordinary and avoided sentimentality. Generally, experiments with form and technique were rare, the exploration of character plan is mostly being dealt with through traditional means. Only in English drama have writers turned against traditional dramatic conventions. Mareike invitation to literature, cornelsen 1990 (pp. What can Iran's modern literature tell us about its writers and the society they emerged from? Iranian writer Nima malek mohamadi walks us through Iran's recent literary history ahead.
Also, novels were developing, robinson Crusoe being just one of them. The years between 1750 to 1784 are referred to as the stats Age of Johnson, after Samuel Johnson, who specialised in literary criticism, developing a new form of dealing with literature. The romantic Period: Most important writers: William Blake ( william Wordsworth ( samuel taylor Coleridge ( lord Byron ( charles Lamb ( sir Walter Scott ( jane austen ( mary wollstonecraft Shelley ( ) Most important works : Frankenstein; or the modern Prometheus (Mary wollstonecraft. At the same time, the gothic novel became popular, Frankenstein being the most famous example. The victorian Age: Most important writers : Charles Dickens ( william makepeace Thackeray ( emily Bronte ( robert louis Stevenson (. Wells ( oscar Wilde ( george bernard Shaw ( ) Most important works : Oliver Twist, Bleak house (Charles Dickens, 1839 / 1853 vanity fair (William makepeace Thackeray, 1848 wuthering heights (Emily Bronte, 1847 The strange case of Dr jekyll and Mr Hyde (Robert louis. Criticism and sarcasm were the elements most writers used in dealing with the circumstances; they viewed their time with realistic eyes, while others tried to re-introduce the romantic themes, for example Stevenson.
the printing press in 1476 by william Caxton which made books easily available. Poetry and drama both developed during this time, the first works of prose fiction were written, and the then living writer William Shakespeare is still considered one of the greatest authors ever to have written in English. The seventeenth Century, most important writers: John Milton (1608-1674 john Dryden (1631-1700 john Donne (1572-1631 most important works : The sermons (John Donne, year? Lost (John Milton, 1667 general information : The early 17th century was dominated by the so-called metaphysical poets, who used elaborate imagery, paradox and reason in dealing with sense, sensibility and eternity. James Version was a new English version of the bible, influenced by all subsequent prose in English. During the puritan's rule over England ( john Milton dominated the scene with his epic poems. When the monarchy was restored in 1660 (period of Restoration theatres were reopened and stage comedy arose. The eighteenth Century: Most important writers : Jonathan Swift ( alexander Pope ( samuel Johnson ( ) Most important works : Gulliver's Travels (Jonathan Swift, 1726 rape of the lock (Alexander Pope, 1714 robinson Crusoe (Daniel Defoe, 1719 tom Jones (Henry fielding, 1749) General information.
Most important writers: geoffrey chaucer (ca. Most important works mom : beowulf (author unknown, 8th century canterbury tales (Geoffrey chaucer, late 1300s). General information : In Old English literature, the most common type of writing were poems, which date back as early as 500. During the time when the lower class spoke middle English, an English dialect mixed with French and Latin elements, romances arose, popular stories of the adventures of great heroes and their battles, like the one of King. Arthur and his Knights of the round Table. The Elizabethan Age, most important writers: William Shakespeare ( christopher. Marlowe ( ben Jonson ( edmund Spenser ( ). Most important works : Romeo and Juliet (William Shakespeare,. 1595 doctor faustus (Christopher Marlowe, 1588 Epicoene or the silent woman (Ben.
Vos: African-American, literature, writers, projects
This caused growth of way attention to t h e literature of, p e hl evi andarz, what found reflectio n i n works of, i b n al-mukaffa, baihaki, ibn Quteiba and others (1,.21; 2,.28) and promoted emergence of huge comple. Rights and obligations of state men including. "Siradj al-muluk" light of Kings of Abu baqr at-Tartush, "Edification for Kings "Canons for viziers" of Abu-l Khasan al-mavardi (the. "Pure gold of Edification for Kings" of Abu Khamid al-gazali (the xii. "siyasat-name" of nizam ul-Mulk (the xii.) and others. A Brief History of English Literature based on: Invitation to literature, cornelsen 1980 (pp. The Old and Middle English Periods.