Listen: Praetorius, terpsichore, voltes (1612) Baroque history (Peri through. Bach) The baroque era of Western classical music is usually defined as the period from 1600 to 1750. (These dates are, of course, rough; the renaissance dances of Praetorius were written in 1612.) Two stylistic tendencies that partially define the baroque were an increased interest in the solo voice and a rise in the status of instruments and instrumental music. The first of these tendencies was born in Florence, among a group of musicians and philosophers called the Florentine camerata camerata" chamber, as in a "chamber of commerce. The members of the camerata sought to create oliver a form of stage music comparable in expressive power to ancient Greek tragedy. They disparaged the polyphonic madrigal, creating instead a new form-the opera-in which soloists sang against an instrumental background. The earliest opera that has entirely survived is l'euridice, by the camerata member Jacopo peri (1561-1633). L'euridice presents the legend of Orpheus and Eurydice, altered so that Orpheus successfully retrieves Eurydice from the underworld in a happy ending. Listen: Peri, l'euridice, " Nel pur ardor " forward (1601) text The showpiece of opera came to be the aria, a self-contained, melodious passage that revealed the mood or attitude of the character singing.
Luca marenzio (1553-1599) was the most celebrated "madrigalist" of his day. Listen: Marenzio, solo e pensoso (Alone and Pensive) (1599) text The instrumental music of the renaissance largely fell into twist two categories: transcriptions of vocal music, and dance music. Different dance styles corresponded to different underlying musical rhythms (as with today's Latin dance music). The german Michael Praetorius (1571?-1621) composed a large set of dances entitled "Terpsichore after the Greek muse of dance. A group of brief "voltes" is reproduced here; the volte was a dance from southwest France in which the woman leapt high in the air volte" vault). Praetorius gave no indication of what instruments were to be used-his dances were played by whatever instruments were available. Here, the early music Consort of London switches between four different "consorts" of instruments, one per volte, before all four consorts play the end of the fourth volte together. A consort was a set of instruments similar in design and tone but varied in size and pitch.
Listen: Josquin, missa pangue lingua, gloria (c. 1510) From about 1530 to 1600, the pre-eminent form of secular vocal music in Europe was the madrigal. The madrigal typically set a poem in Italian (later, often in English) with an intense emotional cast. The setting was usually for four or five voices with no instrumental accompaniment, although instruments were probably added in performance at times. ) was a frenchman, but wrote madrigals in the Italian city of Florence. The most famous example of his work is Il bianco e dolce cigno. Listen: Arcadelt, Il bianco e dolce cigno (The White and Gentle Swan) (1539) text toward the end of the 16th century, madrigals became more tortuous harmonically and more aggressive in their use of musical devices to project the text's meaning and character.
Category: mozart, wolfgang, amadeus — imslp
1350 text, renaissance history (Dufay through Praetorius the tradition of the motet continued into the 15th century. the most renowned composer of his time, composed grand motets for ceremonial occasions in early renaissance Italy. Nuper rosarum flores commemorates the dedication of the cathedral Santa maria del fiore in Florence in 1436. Dufay owed his rich sound to harmonic techniques brought from England by his contemporary john Dunstable. Listen: Dufay, motet: Nuper rosarum flores (1436).
Text, the renaissance's grandest, most highly valued works of vocal music were polyphonic settings of the Ordinary of the mass. The Ordinary is composed of five texts-kyrie, gloria, credo, sanctus, and Agnus dei (the first words of the texts)-that were included in every mass, not only in Masses that celebrated special occasions. Each text was set as a separate movement. Often, each movement began with a similar melody, in which case the mass was called "cyclic when that melody was taken from plainchant or from a secular song, the mass was called a "parody mass" parody" meant in the sense of imitation, but not humorously). The most famous mass of Josquin des Pres writing (1440-1521) was that parodying the plainchant beginning with the text "Pangue lingua." by josquin's time, the slow-moving tenors of the medieval era had been replaced by lower voices that moved as quickly as the higher voices; the.
Many of Perotin's organa (pl. Organum) included two or, as in this example, three active musical lines above the tenor. Perotin slowed down the tenor to an incredible degree-in this example, it takes the tenor four minutes to sing the two words "Viderunt omnes"! Viderunt omnes is a gradual, a joyful text sung in response to a new Testament reading during Mass It was sung on Christmas day. Listen: Perotin, Organum: Viderunt omnes (c.
1200) first 4:00, text, in the 13th century, rhythmic passages of organum to which words had been added (such as the passage in the middle of the leonin organum above) began to be treated as standalone musical works called motets (literally, "worded. Soon, three-part motets appeared, with a different text sung in each voice. (Sometimes the texts were in different languages!) Composers came to use for tenors secular French songs as well as passages of plainchant. One such composer was guillaume de machaut (c. who was not only a musician of great renown but also a poet whose stature approached that of Chaucer. The following motet is based on a secular tenor; each of its three voices sings a different French love poem. Listen: Machaut, motet: Trop plus/biaute paree/Je ne suis (c.
Wolfgang, amadeus, mozart, composer
He did this by greatly slowing down an existing plainchant, and adding to it a new, more rapidly flowing musical line at a higher pitch. This technique was called organum; the shakespeare slowed-down plainchant was called the tenor. Some sections of writing leonin's polyphony were sped up and rhythmicized; later composers added the words of devotional poems to leonin's notes. This example uses the. Alleluia pascha nostrum plainchant as its tenor; it was sung as part of Easter services at the spectacular Gothic cathedral Notre dame of Paris. Listen: leonin, Organum: Alleluia pascha nostrum (late 12th. text, evidence suggests that the compositions of Perotin (active. 1200 like those of leonin, were sung at Notre dame of Paris.
Text, the earliest major repertory of Western secular (non-religious) music which has come down to us is that of the troubadors and trouveres, French poet-musicians of the middle Ages who set their own poems to music. The majority of the resulting songs were about love, often the fictionalized, abstracted "courtly love" of a male character for a noblewoman above his social level. Because troubador songs were notated as simple rows of pitches without rhythm, the rhythms and instrumental accompaniments of modern performances are based on conjecture; images of troubadors in medieval manuscripts have offered hints as to what instruments were played. Bernart de ventadorn (c. 1200) was one of the greatest of the troubadors. His "La douza votz written in the now-extinct language Provencal, deals with the singer's rejection by the lady whom he has long served. Listen: papers Bernart de ventadorn, la douza votz " (The sweet voice) (late 12th.). Text, in the 10th and 11th centuries, composers began setting sacred texts polyphonically (i.e., with more than one melody at the same time). 1200) wrote polyphonic settings of the texts sung on the most important occasions of the Christian year, such as Christmas and Easter.
dark Ages to the present day. The descriptive texts will not delve deeply into matters of musical meaning or technique; the purpose of the outline is to give you a basic working familiarity with different periods and styles. Medieval History (Plainchant through Machaut western classical music history is traditionally understood as beginning with plainchant (also called "Gregorian" chant the vocal religious practice of the roman Catholic Church. Plainchant was transmitted by memory until the early 9th century, when the holy roman Emperor Charlemagne arranged for it to be notated, and for standardized plainchant books to be distributed to churches and monasteries across Europe. Limited in pitch range and monophonic (i.e., composed of a single melody with no accompaniment plainchant was sung largely by monks, nuns, and clerics rather than by professional singers. Plainchant was sung in the divine Offices, eight daily prayer services using Old Testament texts, and in the mass, a midmorning celebration of the life and death of Jesus Christ. The Alleluia reproduced here was a chant of jubilation Alleluia" "Hallelujah sung as part of the mass. Listen: Plainchant: Alleluia pascha nostrum (before 800).
A classic music festival, the citys most famous son. Wolfgang Amadeus mozart and the heart-warming musical "The sound of Music" created the areas fame and popularity with music enthusiasts all over the world. more salzburg Facts, travel Essentials of Salzburg, main Article for Vacation Planning : geography. Map of Salzburg, health safety, climate when to go, visa legal Advice for Austria, salzburg Card, weather, salzburg Webcam. Pee see, salzburg Airport, train Station. Parking - paperless public Transport - cycling bicycles - nightlife - salzburg Flights - salzburg Hostels - car Rental: Hire a car in Salzburg - salzburg Concerts - salzburg tours - finding a hotel in Salzburg - facts Advanced Travel Practicialities Golf in Salzburg - what. Here we provide you with a concise map of Salzburg that aims to give you a basic overview. Salzburg Around the year Salzburg Vacation Planner: Salzburg in a day - "Standard" Salzburg Itinerary (2 to 3 days) - salzburg for a week special Topics Articles that focus on a particular aspect of Salzburg - mostly such that are generally neglected by other websites. Music culture main Article on Art culture: Music - architecture - fine Arts - literature drama - pop- sub-Culture - customs folk culture salzburger Festspiele music Festival - salzburger Osterfestspiele easter Festival - salzburg Concerts - wolfgang Amadeus mozart - silent Night Lyrics (English, german.
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Home general travel info, theres a lot to know about Salzburg. The wealth of information available plan can sometimes be confusing. This section of our website should give you a brief summary of the most important things you might want to know about Salzburg. Here you will also find some honest "personal" advice on things visitors should take into consideration to make their stay as enjoyable as possible, such as on health or legal issues or warnings of tourist traps. Getting an overview, salzburg means "salt castle referring to its massive fortress and the white gold from the mountains in the south. It is the capital of a federal province of Austria with the same name. Its approximately 150,000 residents make it the fourth biggest Austrian city. Beyond that, it is Austrias most beautiful spot - as we as residents will arguably claim. Baroque town centre is rated as a unesco world Cultural Heritage site and can easily be explored by foot.