From the very first I freely admitted the value and importance of your discovery, but I could not admit that identity, and I blamed you for insisting upon it so hastily, and using such hard words against the animal Magnetists, because could not agree with. I thought, and still think, you did wrong in that, and that you certainly did yourself injustice, for in fact you are the original discoverer of a new agency, and not of a mere modification of an old one." evernote But when so much had been. Let us hear what. Bertrand says on this point. He "declares, that it is difficult to imagine with what facility the practisers of the art succeed in relieving the most severe affections of the nervous system. Attacks of epilepsy, in particular, are rendered considerably less frequent and severe by their method skilfully employed; which displays in so remarkable a manner the influence of moral impressions on the physical state of the constitution." After such declarations in favour of the curative power. Bertrand's method of inducing the condition been as generally and speedily successful as mine, will any one believe that it would not have been brought more generally into practice ere now? Mr mayo, one of our best authorities, in a letter to me on this subject states distinctly that the great reason for its not being more generally introduced into practice, was the tediousness of the processes for inducing the condition, and the uncertainty, after all. He concludes his observations on this subject, by the remark, " It took up too much time." And Dr Pritchard, author of the article referred to in the Encyclopedia of Practical Medicine, adds, "On the whole, when we consider the degree of suffering occasioned.
Bertrand denies the necessity of strong intense volitions of the operator being necessary to produce the result. He declared, "that in trials trade by himself, precisely the same results followed, whether he willed to produce them or not, provided that the patient was inwardly persuaded that the whole ritual was duly observed. Can any farther remarks be required to prove that Bertrand referred the result entirely to the effect of imagination? And can any one who has attended to what I have given as my opinion, say that this either was, or is my opinion? Certainly quite the contrary. The parties referred to, therefore, have only proved their belief of how easy it is, by garbled statements, to misrepresent the truth, when submitting such remarks to those dream ignorant of the subject, or who are blinded by prejudice. The following remarks by. Brookes, a celebrated lecturer on animal magnetism, will illustrate this point rather better than the individuals referred. On hearing that I had changed my original opinion about identity, he writes thus: "I am very glad you have length found reason to change your original opinion as to the identity of your phenomena with those of mesmerism.
Bertrand also supports this opinion by the manner in which the Abbé faria performed magnetization. His plan was his : "He placed the patient in an arm-chair, and after telling him to shut his eyes, and collect himself, suddenly pronounced, in a strong voice and imperative tone, the word 'dormez which generally produced on the individual an impression sufficiently strong. Footnote : Vide.24. It is farther added, "if the first attempt failed, he tried the experiment a second, third, and even a fourth time, after which he declared the individual incapable of entering into the state of lucid sleep." whilst it is doubted that his success was equal. And who does not see, on perusing my directions for hypnotizing, footnote : For proof of this, see. That our methods are very different? It is farther added, "The complete identity of the phenomena thus produced by a method which operated confessedly through the imagination, with those which display themselves under the ordinary treatment of the magnetizers, affords a strong reason for concluding that the results in other instances.
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When we consider that in this process we have acquired the power of raising sensibility to the most extraordinary degree, and also of depressing it far below the torpor of natural sleep; (Footnote: Vide Experiments,. Chapter IV) and that from the latter condition, any or all editor of the senses may be raised to the exalted state of sensibility referred to, almost with the rapidity of thought, by so simple an agency as a puff of air directed against the respective. Whether these extraordinary physical effects are produced through the imagination chiefly, or by other means, it appears to me quite certain, that the imagination has never been so much under our control, or capable of being made to act in the same beneficial and uniform. That we really have acquired in this process a valuable addition to our curative means, which enables us speedily to put an end to many diseases which resisted ordinary treatment, i think will be satisfactorily manifested by the cases which I have recorded. Many of these cases have been seen by other medical men, and are so remarkable, so self-evident to every candid and intelligent mind, that it is impossible, with any shew of propriety, to deny them. Most unwarrantable and novel attempts have been made, not only to extinguish the farther prosecution of Hypnotism, but also to misrepresent all I had either said or done on the subject, and thus damage me, as well as Hypnotism, in public estimation. I am in possession of a mass of documentary evidence in proof of this, to an extent which could scarcely be credited.
But I shall not trouble my readers with details of all that has been done in order to prejudice my patients against. As regards general principles, it has even been attempted, by garbled statements, to set forth such gross misrepresentations as could only be credited by parties totally ignorant of the subject. Thus it was alleged, that my mode of hypnotizing was no novelty; on the contrary, that it was an unacknowledged plagiarism, and that it was the opinion and practice of Bertrand and the Abbé faria. Now, so far as I have been able to comprehend the meaning of Bertrand, which Colquhoun observes, "it is rather difficult to comprehend he adheres "to the theory of imagination, and imagination alone (Colquhoun's Introduction,. Iv, of the "Encyclopaedia of Practical Medicine dr Prichard says of Bertrand, that he "comes at last to the conclusion, that all the results of these operations are brought about through the influence of the mind that is, through the influence of the imagination.
I hoped to learn something from others, on certain points which were extremely mysterious to me, as to the cause of some remarkable phenomena. I accordingly intimated my intention to the secretaries, by letter, on 18th may and on the morning of Wednesday, the 22d June, 1842, sent the paper I proposed reading for the consideration of the committee, intimating also, by letter, my intention to produce before them. The committee of the medical section, however, were pleased to decline entertaining the subject. Many of the most eminent and influential members of the Association, however, had already witnessed and investigated my experiments in private, and expressed themselves highly gratified and interested with them. In compliance with the repeated desire of these gentlemen, and many other eminent members of the Association to whom I could not possibly afford time to exhibit my experiments in private, and who were anxious to have an opportunity afforded them of seeing, hearing, and. The interest with which the subject was viewed by the members of the Association generally, was sufficiently testified by the number and high respectability of those who attended on that occasion; in reference to which the chairman requested the reporters to put on record, "that.
On that occasion I stated, there were certain phenomena, which I could readily induce by particular manipulations, whilst I candidly confessed myself unable to explain the modus operandi by which they were induced. I referred particularly to the extraordinary rapidity with which dormant functions, and a state of cataleptiform rigidity, may be changed to the extreme opposite condition, by a simple waft of wind, either from the lips, a pair of bellows, or by any other mechanical means. I solicited information on these points, both privately and publicly, from all the eminently scientific gentlemen who honoured me with their company during the meetings of the British Association in this town; but no one ventured to express a decided opinion as to the causes. I now beg to assure every reader of this treatise, that I shall esteem it a great favour to be enlightened on points which I confess are, at present, still above my comprehension. It will be observed, for reasons adduced, i have now entirely separated Hypnotism from Animal Magnetism. I consider it to be merely a simple, speedy, and certain mode of throwing the nervous system into a new condition, which may be rendered eminently available in the cure of certain disorders. I trust, therefore, it may be investigated quite independently of any bias, either for or against the subject, as connected with mesmerism; and only by the facts which can be adduced. I feel quite confident we have acquired in this process a valuable addition to our curative means; but I repudiate the idea of holding it up as a universal remedy; nor do i even pretend to understand, as yet, the whole range of diseases. Time and experience alone can determine this question, as is the case with all other new remedies.
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By so doing, and by appending foot notes, comprising the data on which my views were grounded, it would have conveyed a pretty clear knowledge of the subject, and of the manner in which it had been treated. It has since been suggested, however, that it might readily be incorporated with the short Elementary Treatise business on neuro-hypnology, which i originally intended to publish, and which i am earnestly solicited to do, by letters from professional gentlemen from all quarters. I now, therefore, submit my views to the public in the following condensed form. I shall aim at brevity and perspicuity; and my great object will be to teach others all i know of the modes of inducing the phenomena, and their application in the cure of diseases, and to invite my professional brethren to labour in the same. It was with this conviction i offered my "Practical Essay on the curative agency of neuro-hypnotism to the medical section of the British Association. In november, 1841, 1 was led to investigate the pretensions of animal magnetism, or mesmerism, as a complete sceptic, from an anxiety to discover the source of fallacy in certain phenomena i had heard were exhibited. The result was, that I made some discoveries which appeared to elucidate certain of the phenomena, and rendered them interesting, both in a speculative and practical point of view. I considered it a most favourable opportunity for having additional light thrown upon this subject, to offer a paper to the medical section of the British Association, which was about to meet in Manchester. Gentlemen of scientific attainments paper might thus have had an opportunity of investigating it, and eliciting the truth, unbiassed by local or personal prejudice.
Reasons for delivering Public Lectures on Hypnotism - mode of procuring refreshing sleep, with low pulse and general flaccidity of muscle - efficacy of this plan. Introductory remarks - relation between mind and matter illustrated to disprove materialism - armstrong, colton, Brown, Abercrombie, stewart, Plato - general conclusion, that mind or life is the cause of organism - power of conscience - the passions, how excited - dr Elliotson's opinion. General resumé - many online phenomena admit of physical and chemical proof - difficulties of comprehending many phenomena - effects of prejudice in preventing the reception of truth - critique on debate at Medico-Chirurgical Society on Mr Ward's operation - state of the circulation - conjectures. Modes of operating - objects of operations - cases of sight improved - hearing - deaf and dumb - mr Curtis's remarks - james Shelmerdine's case - mr Bingham's testimony -. Taylor - sense of smell - touch and resistance - tic, paralysis of sense and motion, cured - miss. Atkinson's case, voice recovered - rheumatism, ten cases - irregular muscular action - headache - spinal Irritation - epilepsy - spinal curvature - neuralgia, and palpitation of the heart - surgical operations without pain - diseases of the skin - locked jaw - tonic spasm. Top, it was my intention to have published my "Practical Essay on the curative agency of neuro- hypnotism exactly as delivered at the conversazione given, to the members of the British Association in Manchester, on the 19th June, 1842.
operating on another. mode of resisting influence. Phenomena of natural sleep, dreaming, and somnambulism contrasted - causes of common sleep - of dreaming - effects of variety and monotony compared - charges alleged to take place in the Structure of the brain by exertion - cause of Hypnotism, m'nish's article on reverie". Phenomena of common sleep - of Hypnotism - power of locomotion and accurate balancing of themselves - tendency to dance on hearing appropriate music - grace displayed under its influence - tendency to become cataleptiformly fixed in any position if left quiet - probability. Atkinson's - extent to which it may be expected to be useful.
General remarks - why hypnotism has been separated from Animal Magnetism - how far considered useful in the cure of disease - its Powers on the animal functions - certain erroneous charges refuted - opinions and practice of Bertrand and Abbé faria, mr Brooks,. Introductory remarks - circumstances which directed to the investigation - a real phenomenon observed - experiments instituted dark to prove the cause of it - opinions and conclusions drawn from them - reasons for separating Hypnotism from Mesmerism- hypnotism more generally successful than Animal Magnetism. Mode of Hypnotizing - circumstances necessary to be complied with - peculiar phenomena which follow; excitement first, and afterwards depression of function - importance of attending to this - how these may be made to alternate with each other - extraordinaiy influence of a current. two patients may hypnotize each other by contact. phenomena arise spontaneously in course of disease. mr wakley's admission on this point. Mayo's testimony as to the effects of Hypnotism.
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Or, the rationale of nervous sleep considered in relation with animal magnetism. James Braid, dM:- i have copied this book for others to read because i regard this book as the fountain head of hypnosis. Braid not only gives us the word we now use for our subject, but brought to it a clarity of thought and an energy of experimentation which is unparallelled. I do not know much about his life which is not contained in the pages of this book, but I have compiled them into a brief biography. Dedication, tO, charles anderson,. My dear Sir, inclination as well as duty induces me to dedicate this work to you: that I may publicly express the lively sense of gratitude i entertain for the many opportunities enjoyed during my apprenticeship with yourself and your late father, of acquiring. I am aware that you are not practically acquainted with the subject of this treatise, but your intimate knowledge of general science renders you eminently qualified for prosecuting the subject with success; and permit me to assure you, that its value as a curative power. Believe me, my dear Sir, most faithfully yours, james Braid. Peter's Square, manchester, june 2, 1843.