An important database available on Internet is the lipid Bank for Web, a lipid database information retrieval system. It contains a lot of information about fatty acids and other lipid compounds. Additionally to physical and chemical data the database comprises information about the fatty acid composition of different oils. Hundreds of fatty acids synthesized by thousands of plants and their phylogenetic relationships are documented in an internet data base, plantFAdb ( https essay plantfadb. Org/ which can be used to search fatty acid molecules or plants producing these fatty acids. About 500 different fatty acids are listed. The database allows to search for plant species, genera and families, for individual fatty acids (start by adding an asterisk after each entry) and combinations of fatty acids in their seed oils, and for their percentage contents.
The other double bonds are deduced from the first one by adding 3 (this is the most frequent structure, non-conjugated fatty acids, but sometimes by adding 2, these double bonds are said conjugated). Thus, linoleic acid or cis-9, cis-12-octadecadienoic acid is also named in the shorthand nomenclature 18:2 (n-6). This compound has 18 carbon atoms, 2 double bonds and 6 carbon atoms from the last double bond to the terminal methyl group. In the old literature it was designated 18:2. 18-612, 12-39, hence d 9,12. The International Commission on biochemical Nomenclature agreed to the first form of this nomenclature because of its interest in describing the fatty acid metabolism. A list of common (non-systematic) names for fatty acids ( by Adlof. ) with their structure and source may be consulted in a page from aocs. The common names and the structures of many fatty acids may be found on the lipidomics Gateway.
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In recent physiological works, the last class is used only for fatty hotlinks acids with three up to six double bonds as those found in fish oil or in brain tissue. Some uncommon polyunsaturated fatty acids have two adjacent double bonds separated by more than one methylene group, they are named polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids. In some animals, but mainly in plants and bacteria, fatty acids may be more complex since they can have an odd number of carbon benefits atoms, branched chains or contain a variety of other functional groups, including acetylenic bonds, epoxy-, hydroxy - or keto groups and. Except fatty acyl-coa, we have based our classification of fatty acids first on the type of carbon chain : either straight (or normal or branched, or containing a carbon ring. In each category, subdivisions are created according to the functional groups substituted on the carbon chain.
To describe the unsaturated fatty acids, two ways are offered: The chemist's terminology: The carbon atoms are counted from the carboxyl group which put the emphasis on the double bond closest to this group. As an example: 18:2 D 9,12 or cis-9, cis-12-octadecadienoic acid, the trivial name: linoleic acid. The double bonds have usually a z (cis) configuration but can have also a e (trans) configuration. The biochemist's and physiologist's terminology: Holman rt proposed in 1964 a new numbering system for the unsaturation of fatty acids, the "omega nomenclature". The double bonds are counted from the methyl group determining the metabolic family, noted by w x ( w for the terminal carbon) or better n-x (n for the total number of carbon, x being the position of the distal double bond).
Fatty acids make up the greatest proportion of the current consumption of raw material in the chemical industry. The extent of the chemical reactions which are used to transform these renewable materials has been summarized bierman u., Angew Chem Int Ed 2000, 39, 2206 ). . A short survey of oil crop platforms to be considered for either multi-purpose or technical oils production has been reviewed in 2009 (. Carlsson, as, biochimie 2009, 91, 665 ). To describe precisely the structure of a fatty acid molecule, one must give the length of the carbon chain (number of carbon the number of double bonds and also the exact position of these double bonds, this will define the biological reactivity of the fatty. Most fatty acids are straight-chain compounds with the most frequently an even number of carbon atoms.
Odd-numbered fatty acids are mostly frequent in bacteria and lower plants or animals (review in : rezanka t., Prog Lipid Res 2009, 48, 206 ). Chain-lengths range is from 2 to 80 but commonly from 12 up. With a chain length from 2 to 6 (or 4) they are called short-chain, from 8 (or 6) to 10 they are called medium-chain and 12 up to 24 they are called long-chain fatty acids. Their physical and biological properties are related to this partition in 3 classes. An extensive review on the biochemical mechanisms of fatty acid elongation may be consulted for further information ( leonard ae., Prog Lipid Res 2004, 43, 36 ). Fatty acids are simple in structure and even with their derivatives can be subdivided into well-defined families: Among straight-chain fatty acids, the simplest are referred to as saturated fatty acids. They have no unsaturated linkages and cannot be altered by hydrogenation or halogenation. When double bonds are present, fatty acids are said unsaturated, monounsaturated (mufa) if only one double bond is present and polyenoic (or polyunsaturated fatty acids pufa ) if they have two or more double bonds generally separated by a single methylene group (methylene-interrupted unsaturation).
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The analyzed fatty acid profiling of plants or microalgae have been used to classify them into distinct taxonomic orders with respect to their phylogenetic classification (. Sahu a., phytochemistry 2013, 89, 53 ). That experimental approach has been reported as a tool for studying the chemotaxonomic features in various species macro- and microalgae. Fatty interests acid methyl and ethyl esters are known to be present in the plasma of patient with liver dysfunction following ethanol ingestion (. Aleryani, sL., Clin Chim Acta 2005, 359, 141; Politi l., Anal biochem 2007, 368, 1). Fatty acid classification, triglycerides from various vegetable oils give through transesterification a mix of fatty acid esters which is now used increasingly as a substitute of diesel fuel and is named. The world production of fatty acids from the hydrolysis of natural fats and oils totaled about 4 million metric tons per year. Fatty acids are ultimately consumed in a wide variety of end-use industries (rubber, plastics, detergents.). As it is a good indication of the overall economic performance of a region, the consumption of fatty acids has tended to approximate the growth in the gnp of the region of their consumption.
L.9-10.6, acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. Fatty acid structure, fatty acids, carboxylic acids occur in many molecular forms. At first It must be recalled that if the majority of the fatty acids found in lipids are monocarboxylic acids, some of them are dicarboxylic and constitute important metabolic or oxidation products of the previous ones. Several hundreds of forms have been identified but the number occurring frequently in the common lipids is much fewer (from 10 in plants to about 20 in animal tissues). Several fatty acids, free or esterified (methyl butyrate, ethyl octanoate, dodecanoic acid. belong to aroma compounds which are found in environmental or food systems (see the website: Flavornet ).
Knowledge of Language: ccss. L.9-10.3, apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning oliver or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening. L.9-10.3.a, write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual (e.g., mla handbook, turabian's, manual for Writers ) appropriate for the discipline and writing type. Vocabulary Acquisition and Use: ccss. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 9-10 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. L.9-10.4.a, use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word's position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. L.9-10.4.b, identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical; advocate, advocacy ). L.9-10.4.c, consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, or its etymology. L.9-10.4.d, verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
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Conventions of Standard English: ccss. L.9-10.1, demonstrate command of the wood conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. L.9-10.1.a, use parallel structure. L.9-10.1.b, use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional, absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent; noun, relative, adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. L.9-10.2.a, use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more closely related independent clauses. L.9-10.2.b, use a colon to introduce a list or"tion.