Read a students evaluation paragraph. Notice how the paragraph tree incorporates the students personal judgment within the evaluation. Evaluating a document requires prior knowledge that is often based on additional research. Tip, when reviewing directions for assignments, look for the verbs summarize, analyze, synthesize, or evaluate. Instructors often use these words to clearly indicate the assignments purpose. These words will cue you on how to complete the assignment because you will know its exact purpose. Exercise 1, read the following paragraphs about four films and then identify the purpose of each paragraph.
If the company focuses on improving communication, the supervisor will rate the employees customer service according to a standard scale. However, the evaluation still depends on the supervisors opinion and prior experience with the employee. The purpose of the evaluation is to determine how well the employee performs at his or her job. An academic evaluation communicates your opinion, and its justifications, about a document or a topic of discussion. Evaluations are influenced by your reading essay of the document, your prior knowledge, and your prior experience with the topic or issue. Because an evaluation incorporates your point of view and reasons for your point of view, it typically requires more critical thinking and a combination of summary, analysis, and synthesis skills. Thus evaluation paragraphs often follow summary, analysis, and synthesis paragraphs.
Take a look at a students synthesis of several sources about underage drinking. Notice how the synthesis paragraphs consider each source and use information from each to create a new thesis. A good synthesis does not repeat information; the writer uses a variety of sources to create a new idea. Evaluation Paragraphs, an evaluation, a purpose for writing that communicates a writers opinion about a document or a topic and the justifications for that opinion. Judges the value of something and determines its worth. Evaluations in everyday experiences are often not only dictated by set standards but also influenced by opinion and prior knowledge. For example, at work, a supervisor may complete an employee evaluation by judging his subordinates performance based on the companys goals.
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Notice how the analysis does not simply repeat information from the original report, but considers how the points within the report relate to one another. By doing this, the student uncovers a plan discrepancy between the points that are backed up by statistics and those that require additional information. Analyzing a document involves a close examination of each of the individual parts and how they work together. A synthesis, a purpose for writing that considers the main points from one or more pieces of writing and links them together to create a new point. Combines two or more items to create an entirely new item. Consider the electronic musical instrument aptly named the synthesizer.
It looks like a simple keyboard but displays a dashboard of switches, buttons, and levers. With the flip of a few switches, a musician may combine the distinct sounds of a piano, a flute, proper or a guitar—or any other combination of instruments—to create a new sound. The purpose of the synthesizer is to blend together the notes from individual instruments to form new, unique notes. The purpose of an academic synthesis is to blend individual documents into a new document. An academic synthesis paragraph considers the main points from one or more pieces of writing and links the main points together to create a new point, one not replicated in either document.
Summaries need not contain all the specific facts and figures in the original document; they provide only an overview of the essential information. Analysis Paragraphs, an analysis, a purpose for writing that separates the individual points in a piece of writing and studies how the points relate to one another. Separates complex materials in their different parts and studies how the parts relate to one another. The analysis of simple table salt, for example, would require a deconstruction of its parts—the elements sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl). Then, scientists would study how the two elements interact to create the compound nacl, or sodium chloride, which is also called simple table salt.
Analysis is not limited to the sciences, of course. An analysis paragraph in academic writing fulfills the same purpose. Instead of deconstructing compounds, academic analysis paragraphs typically deconstruct documents. An analysis takes apart a primary source (an essay, a book, an article, etc.) point by point. It communicates the main points of the document by examining individual points and identifying how the points relate to one another. Take a look at a students analysis of the journal report.
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Similarly, a summary paragraph condenses a long piece of writing into a smaller paragraph by extracting only the vital information. A summary uses only the writers own words. Like the summarys purpose in daily conversation, the purpose of an academic summary paragraph is to maintain all the essential information from a longer document. Although shorter than the original piece of writing, a summary should movie still communicate all the key points and key support. In other words, summary paragraphs should be succinct and to the point. A summary of the report should present all the main points and supporting details in brief. Read the following resume summary of the report written by a student: Notice how the summary retains the key points made by the writers of the original report but omits most of the statistical data.
For now, identifying these book purposes by reading paragraphs will prepare you to write individual paragraphs and to build longer assignments. Summary paragraphs, a summary, a purpose for writing that condenses a long piece of writing into a smaller paragraph by extracting only the vital information. Writers use their own words to create summaries. Shrinks a large amount of information into only the essentials. You probably summarize events, books, and movies daily. Think about the last blockbuster movie you saw or the last novel you read. Chances are, at some point in a casual conversation with a friend, coworker, or classmate, you compressed all the action in a two-hour film or in a two-hundred-page book into a brief description of the major plot movements. While in conversation, you probably described the major highlights, or the main points in just a few sentences, using your own vocabulary and manner of speaking.
to synthesize, and to evaluate. You will encounter these four purposes not only as you read for your classes but also as you read for work or pleasure. Because reading and writing work together, your writing skills will improve as you read. To learn more about reading in the writing process, see. Chapter 8 "The Writing Process: How do i begin?". Eventually, your instructors will ask you to complete assignments specifically designed to meet one of the four purposes. As you will see, the purpose for writing will guide you through each part of the paper, helping you make decisions about content and style.
To create longer assignments and to discuss more than one point, writers group together paragraphs. The assignments purpose, audience, and tone dictate what the paragraph covers and how it will support one main point. This section covers how purpose, audience, and tone affect reading and writing paragraphs. Identifying Common Academic Purposes, the purpose for a save piece of writing identifies the reason you write a particular document. Basically, the purpose of a piece of writing answers the question Why? For example, why write a play? To entertain a packed theater. Why write instructions to the babysitter?
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Imagine reading one long block of text, with each idea blurring into the next. Even if you are reading a thrilling novel or an interesting news article, you will likely lose interest in what the author has to say very quickly. During the writing process, it is helpful to position yourself as a reader. Ask yourself whether you can focus easily on each point you make. One technique that effective writers use is to begin a fresh paragraph for each new idea they introduce. Paragraphs separate ideas into logical, manageable chunks. One paragraph focuses on only one main idea and presents evernote coherent sentences to support that one point. Because all the sentences in one paragraph support the same point, a paragraph may stand on its own.