The war began with the audacious invasion of Hispania by hannibal, the carthaginian general who had led operations on Sicily in the first Punic War. Hannibal, son of Hamilcar Barca, rapidly marched through Hispania to the Italian Alps, causing panic among Rome's Italian allies. The best way found to defeat Hannibal's purpose of causing the Italians to abandon Rome was to delay the carthaginians with a guerrilla war of attrition, a strategy propounded by quintus Fabius Maximus, who would be nicknamed Cunctator delayer" in Latin and whose strategy would. Due to this, hannibal's goal was unachieved: he could not bring essay enough Italian cities to revolt against Rome and replenish his diminishing army, and he thus lacked the machines and manpower to besiege rome. Still, hannibal's invasion lasted over 16 years, ravaging Italy. Finally, when the romans perceived that Hannibal's supplies were running out, they sent Scipio, who had defeated Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal in Spain, to invade the unprotected Carthaginian hinterland and force hannibal to return to defend Carthage itself. The result was the ending of the second Punic War by the famously decisive battle of Zama in October 202 bc, which gave to Scipio his agnomen Africanus. At great cost, rome had made significant gains: the conquest of Hispania by Scipio, and of Syracuse, the last Greek realm in Sicily, by marcellus.
The first Punic War began in 264 bc, when the city of Messana asked for Carthage's improve help in their conflicts with hiero ii of Syracuse. After the carthaginian intercession, messana asked Rome to expel the carthaginians. Rome entered this war because syracuse and Messana were too close to the newly conquered Greek cities of southern Italy and Carthage was now able to make an offensive through Roman territory; along with this, rome could extend its domain over Sicily. 35 Although the romans had experience in land battles, to defeat this new enemy, naval battles were necessary. Carthage was a maritime power, and the roman lack of ships and naval experience would make the path to the victory a long and difficult one for the roman Republic. Despite this, after more than 20 years of war, rome defeated Carthage and a peace treaty was signed. Among the reasons for the second Punic War 36 was the subsequent war reparations Carthage acquiesced to at the end of the first Punic War. 37 The second Punic War is famous for its brilliant generals: on the punic side hannibal and Hasdrubal ; on the roman, marcus Claudius Marcellus, quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus and Publius Cornelius Scipio. Rome fought this war simultaneously with the first Macedonian War.
29 (According to later legend, the roman supervising the weighing noticed that the gauls were using false scales. The romans then took up arms and defeated the gauls; their victorious general Camillus remarked "With iron, not with gold, rome buys her freedom. 30 The romans gradually subdued the other peoples on the Italian peninsula, including the Etruscans. 31 The last threat to roman hegemony in Italy came when Tarentum, a major Greek colony, enlisted the aid of Pyrrhus of Epirus in 281 bc, but this effort failed as well. 32 31 The romans secured their conquests by founding Roman colonies in strategic areas, thereby establishing stable control over the region of Italy they had conquered. 31 Punic Wars main article: Punic Wars In the 3rd century bc rome faced a new and formidable opponent: Carthage. Carthage was a rich, flourishing Phoenician city-state that intended to dominate the mediterranean area. The two cities were allies in the times of Pyrrhus, who was a menace to both, but with Rome's hegemony in mainland Italy and the carthaginian thalassocracy, these cities became the two major powers in the western Mediterranean and their contention over the mediterranean led.
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The most important magistrates were the two consuls, who together exercised executive authority such as imperium, or military command. 24 The consuls had marathi to work with the senate, which was initially an advisory council of the ranking nobility, or patricians, but grew in size and power. 25 Other magistrates of the republic include tribunes, quaestors, aediles, praetors and censors. 26 The magistracies were originally restricted to patricians, but were later opened to common people, or plebeians. 27 Republican voting assemblies included the comitia centuriata (centuriate assembly which voted on matters of war and peace and elected men to the most important offices, and the comitia tributa (tribal assembly which elected less important offices.
28 In the 4th century bc, rome had come under attack by the gauls, who now extended their power in the Italian peninsula beyond the po valley and through Etruria. On 16 July 390 bc, a gallic army under the leadership of a tribal chieftain named Brennus, met the romans on the banks of the Allia river just ten miles north of Rome. Brennus defeated the romans, and the gauls marched directly to rome. Most Romans had fled the city, but some barricaded themselves upon the capitoline gardiner hill for a last stand. The gauls looted and burned the city, then laid siege to the capitoline hill. The siege lasted seven months, the gauls then agreed to give the romans peace in exchange for 1,000 pounds (450 kg) of gold.
18 The roman poet Virgil recounted this legend in his classical epic poem the aeneid, where the Trojan prince aeneas is destined by the gods to found a new Troy. In the epic, the women also refuse to go back to the sea, but they were not left on the tiber. After reaching Italy, aeneas, who wanted to marry lavinia, was forced to wage war with her former suitor, turnus. According to the poem, the Alban kings were descended from Aeneas, and thus Romulus, the founder of Rome, was his descendant. Kingdom main article: Roman Kingdom The city of Rome grew from settlements around a ford on the river Tiber, a crossroads of traffic and trade. 15 According to archaeological evidence, the village of Rome was probably founded some time in the 8th century bc, though it may go back as far as the 10th century bc, by members of the latin tribe of Italy, on the top of the palatine.
19 20 The Etruscans, who had previously settled to the north in Etruria, seem to have established political control in the region by the late 7th century bc, forming an aristocratic and monarchical elite. The Etruscans apparently lost power by the late 6th century bc, and at this point, the original Latin and Sabine tribes reinvented their government by creating a republic, with much greater restraints on the ability of rulers to exercise power. 21 Roman tradition and archaeological evidence point to a complex within the forum Romanum as the seat of power for the king and the beginnings of the religious center there as well. Numa pompilius the second king of Rome, succeeding Romulus, began Rome's building projects with his royal palace the regia and the complex of the vestal virgins. Republic main article: Roman Republic According to tradition and later writers such as livy, the roman Republic was established around 509 bc, 22 when the last of the seven kings of Rome, tarquin the Proud, was deposed by lucius Junius Brutus and a system based. 23 A constitution set a series of checks and balances, and a separation of powers.
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Romulus visited neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables he was refused. Legend says that the latins invited the sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the latins with the sabines. 17 Another legend, recorded by Greek historian dionysius of Halicarnassus, says that Prince aeneas led a group of Trojans on a sea voyage to found a new Troy, since the original was destroyed at the end of the Trojan War. After a long time in rough seas, they landed on the banks of the tiber river. Not long after dissertation they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, but the women who were traveling with them did not want to leave. One woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent their leaving. At first, the men were angry with Roma, but they soon realized that they were in the ideal place to settle. They named the settlement after the woman who torched their ships.
11 Contents founding myth main article: founding of Rome According to the founding myth of Rome, the city was founded on 21 April 753 BC by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended from the Trojan prince aeneas, 12 and who were grandsons of the. King Numitor was deposed by his brother, Amulius, while numitor's daughter, Rhea silvia, gave birth to the twins. 13 14 Because Rhea silvia had been raped and impregnated by mars, the roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine. The new king, Amulius, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, so he ordered words them to be drowned. 14 A she-wolf (or a shepherd's wife in some accounts) saved and raised them, and when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba longa to numitor. 15 14 The twins then founded their own city, but Romulus killed Remus in a quarrel over the location of the roman Kingdom, though some sources state the quarrel was about who was going to rule or give his name to the city. 16 Romulus became the source of the city's name. 14 In order to attract people to the city, rome became a sanctuary for the indigent, exiled, and unwanted. This caused a problem, in that Rome came to have a large male population but was bereft of women.
have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. 8 9 10 Splinter states, such as the palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent "barbarian" kingdoms in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval " Dark Ages " of Europe. The eastern part of the empire endured through the 5th century and remained a power throughout the "Dark Ages" and medieval times until its fall in 1453. Though the citizens of the empire made no distinction, the empire is most commonly referred to as the " byzantine Empire " by modern historians during the middle Ages to differentiate between the state of antiquity and the nation it grew into.
Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The roman empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20 of the world's population 3 ) and covering.0 book million square kilometres at its height in ad 117. 4, in its many centuries of existence, the roman state evolved from a monarchy to a, classical Republic and then to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it eventually dominated the mediterranean region, western Europe, asia minor, north Africa, and parts of Northern and Eastern Europe. It is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern government, law, politics, engineering, art, literature, architecture, technology, warfare, religion, language, and society. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics 5 6 7 such as the United States and France. It achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as the construction of large monuments, palaces, and public facilities. By the end of the republic (27 bc rome had conquered the lands around the mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to north Africa.
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For the modern-day city, see, rome. For other uses, see, ancient Rome (disambiguation). In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century william bc to the collapse of the. Western Roman Empire in the 5th century ad, encompassing the. Roman Kingdom, roman Republic and, roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. 1, the term is sometimes used to refer only to the kingdom and republic periods, excluding the subsequent empire. 2, the civilization began as an, italic settlement in the. Italian peninsula, dating from the 8th century bc, that grew into the city.