Drosophila melanogaster lab report hypothesis

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Drosophila melanogaster - sex linkage and inheritance of genes through cross breeding Abstract This experiment looks at the relationship between genes, generations of a population and if genes are carried from one generation to another. Drosophila melanogaster, starting with a parent group we crossed a variety of flies and observe the characteristics of the F1 generation. We then concluded that sex-linked genes and autosomal genes could indeed be traced through from the parent generation to the F1 generation. Introduction Sex linkage and inherited genes allow us to predict and understand how and why certain animals and plants inherit features from their parents while some dont. Sex linkage is the condition in which a gene responsible for a specific trait is located on a sex chromosome, resulting in sexually dependent inheritance of the trait (Houghton Mifflin Company 2009). As the first sex-linked gene was found. Drosophila melanogaster (Ladiges, pauline y 2012) it is appropriate to use them in the study to determine how sex-linked chromosomes effect the offspring.

Drosophila melanogaster is a little two winged insect about 3mm long two winged insect that belongs to the diptera, the order of the flies. The drosophila egg is about half a millimeter long. Fertilization takes about one for day the embryo to develop and hatch into a worm-like larva. The larva eats and grows continuously, after two days as a third in star larva; it moults one more time to form an immobile pupa. Over the next four days, the body is completely remodeled to give the adult winged form, which then hatches from the pupal case and is fertile within about 12 hours. Fruit fly has four pairs of chromosomes: the X/Y sex chromosomes and the autosomes 2, 3, and. The fourth chromosome is very tiny and rarely heard from. The size of the genome is about 165 million bases and contains and estimated 14,000 genes (by comparison, the human genome has 3,400 million bases and may have about 22,500 genes; yeast has about 5800 genes.5 million base bases). The genome has been completely sequenced and analysis of the data is now mostly complete. Fruit fly is a most commonly used model organism in studies such as genetics, biology, physiology and life history evolution. It is so useful because it is very small and easy to grow.

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To set up this experiment, two twenty-five gallon aquariums, 3 petri-dishes, 200 flies, rotten bananas, and yeast were used. It was decided that there would be 80 vestigial flies and 20 wild type flies to total to an initial population of 100 drosophila. In the sexual selection circumstance, the vestigial drosophilas carrying capacity is somewhere around 80 individuals, which is consistent with the wild type drosophilas carrying capacity in this circumstance (Figure 4). In the sexual and natural selection circumstance the wild type. Drosophila melanogaster Lab Report Essay. Introduction In most kitchens hippie the small flies that are found are. Drosophila, melanogaster also called fruit fly. They are often brought in by ripened tomatoes, grapes and other perishable items from the garden.

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Studies have shown that the level of response of ethanol. Natural and Sexual Selection of Vestigial and Wild Type Drosophila melanogaster Essay. Sexual Selection of Vestigial and Wild Type. Drosophila melanogaster Abstract In this experiment, vestigial flies as well as wild type flies were used to create some diversity as well as test one of our hypotheses. Our hypotheses are as follows; 1) The wild type flies will have a greater relative fitness compared to the vestigial flies based on only sexual selection. . The wild type has a relative fitness of 1 since it paperless has fully functional wings. . Vestigial Winged flies are not as sexually appealing since their wings are not functional and the wing movement is a vital part of their mating ritual. . 2) The vestigial fly will have a greater relative fitness when considering both sexual and natural selection. With the presence of natural selection (fly paper hanging from top of cage) posing a larger threat to the wild flies b/c they can fly better, this will allow vestigial flies to prosper better.

Ethanol sensitivity in, drosophila melanogaster based on genotype Alexa Shumate department of biology randolph-Macon College Ashland, virginia introduction With a better understanding of the genes and behaviors associated with ethanol sensitivity, there will be new treatments available for alcohol dependence. The main problem in determining what causes dependence to alcohol is whether it is an environmental factor or if it is the genes associated with ethanol sensitivity. Alcohol directly affects a wide spectrum in the nervous system making it hard to pinpoint exactly the mechanisms of ethanol inside the body of an organism (Heberlein,. Prior evidence shows that ethanol affects the blood right into cell membranes however proteins inside the membrane have been implicated as a target of ethanol (Heberlein,. The amount an organism is affected by ethanol is determined by the organisms genetic makeup. In families that have a problem with alcoholism, the young men of the family are less likely to be sensitive to ethanol than young men from a family that does not have alcoholism run in the family (Heberlein,. People who have a reduced sensitivity to ethanol are at a higher risk of developing alcoholism since they do not receive the negative effects of ethanol as fast as people that are sensitive to ethanol.

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Starting with Charles. Woodworth's proposal of essay the use of this species as a model organism,. Melanogaster continues to be widely used for biological research in studies of genetics, physiology, microbial pathogenesis and life history evolution. It is typically used because it is an animal species that is easy to care for, breeds quickly, and lays many eggs. Flies belonging to the family tephritidae are also called fruit flies, which can lead to confusion, especially in Australia and south Africa, where the term fruit fly refers to members of the tephritidae that are economic pests in fruit production, such as Ceratitiscapitata, the mediterranean.

Wildtype fruit flies are yellow-brown, with brick red eyes and transverse black rings across the abdomen. They exhibit sexual dimorphism: females are about.5 millimeters (0.098 in) long; males are slightly smaller with darker backs. Males are easily distinguished from females based on colour differences, with a distinct black patch at the abdomen, less noticeable in recently emerged flies (see fig and the sexcombs (a row of dark bristles on the tarsus of the first leg). Furthermore, males have a cluster of spiky hairs (claspers) surrounding the reproducing parts used to attach leisure to the female. Ethanol sensitivity in Drosophila melanogaster based on genotype Essay.

The parents of the F1 generation were a di-hybrid cross of ebony body and vestigial winged. Drosophila, which are both recessive also known as mutants. Using statists as a tool we could predict the expected offspring for our F2 generation. The expected is our controlled variable applied in this experiment. Protocol used for this experiment involved a controlled environment, we created.

Drosophila vials; our vials included an instant. Drosophila medium; plastic mesh and an incubator, also referred to as a fruit fly home. We applied water to the medium, the white flakes turn blue when mixed with water; the purpose of the blue dye. Essay about drosophila melanogaster. Introduction, drosophila melanogaster is a species of Fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae. The species is known generally as the common fruit fly or vinegar fly.

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Along with this a prediction will choose movie the banana 2:1 essay over the other. Lab Report-Drosophila melanogaster Essay. The Frequency of Mutations among Second Generation. Drosophila melanogaster introduction this experiment involved observing and comparing the relative frequencies of inherited dominant and recessive genes in a population using the common fruit fly. In this experiment, we demonstrate how dominant genes are selected over recessive genes (Mendels Law of Independent Assortment). Hypothesis: If we cross two heterozygous individuals, our observed offspring in the second generation (F2) will have a phenotypic ratio equivalent to the expected Mendelian probability of 9:3:3:1. Materials and methods for this experiment we would observe the offspring that would be produced if we cross breed two heterozygous individuals, this is the first generation (F1).

Some organisms produce The fruit fly, drosophila melanogaster, is one of the smallest model organisms used to provide insight to the genetic development of humans. Development biologists won a nobel Prize in 1995 for the genetic studies and later bellini principles they discovered with fruit flies that also apply to humans and other animals (Zerucha 15). Fruit flies have an advantage that their life expectancy is an average.5 days (Flatt 1986). The female having the ability to lie over 200 eggs in a lifetime provide multiple model organisms to observe (Appel 40). The size of fruit flies enables researchers to store them in cultured vials. This class has been divided into groups and prepared vials for each group. Our group has collectively chosen three fruits to determine if the fruit flies have a preference to a particular fruit. I predict that the fruit flies will prefer the rotting banana over the raspberry and orange.

documents Helpful. Introduction An organism that studied to better understand the biology of another organism is considered to be a model organism. There are several organisms used or model organisms used for humans, mice, frogs, roundworm, chicks, fish, and fruit flies. All of these organisms ate much smaller and easier to care for and observe. A major advantage to using these model organisms are their ability to rapidly develop off spring often times in much larger numbers than a human.

Taste processing in the central nervous system: In the fly gustatory system, sensory neurons, essay motor neurons driving proboscis extension and feeding, and modulatory neurons all arborize in the same brain region, the subesophageal ganglion (SOG). One attractive hypothesis is that simple circuits mediating taste reflexes might be localized to the sog, but that in addition, communication between gustatory circuits and higher brain centers may allow for more complex associations. To understand how taste information is processed in the fly, we are delineating taste neural circuits with cellular resolution, using molecular genetic approaches to label, activate and silence neurons, and electrophysiological and calcium imaging approaches to monitor taste-induced activity. These studies aim to examine how the brain processes taste information to allow for stereotyped behavior, behavioral plasticity and individual variation. Modulation of taste behaviors: For an animal to survive in a constantly changing environment, its behavior must be shaped by the sensory stimuli it detects, its previous experience and its internal state. Although taste behaviors in the fly are relatively simple, with sugars mediating acceptance behavior and bitter compounds avoidance, these behaviors are also plastic and modified by intrinsic and extrinsic cues. How intrinsic cues such as hunger, satiety and thirst and other sensory cues such as odors or noxious stimuli influence taste behaviors is an area of increasing interest in the lab. A fly extends its proboscis to sucrose. This fly has been engineered to express channelrhodopsin2, a light-gated ion channel, in sugar-sensing neurons.

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Taste detection in the periphery: How do flies detect different taste compounds essays in their environment? Recent work in the lab has characterized different classes of gustatory neurons, the taste stimuli they detect and the molecular basis of detection. These studies have identified four categories of taste cells (sugar-sensing, bitter-sensing, water-sensing and carbon dioxide-sensing) and the receptors that underlie detection. Current work continues to examine taste receptors in the fly, with the aim of a complete description of taste cell categories in the periphery. Research, people, publications, positions, contact, our lab studies the gustatory system in Drosophila melanogaster to understand how sensory information is processed by the brain to give rise to specific behaviors. Drosophila sense many of the same taste stimuli as mammals, including sugars, salts, acids, alcohols and noxious chemicals. These compounds mediate acceptance or avoidance behaviors, and activation of a single sensory neuron is sufficient to produce a behavior. Although innate, taste behaviors may be modified by learning and experience. The simplicity of ligands and behaviors, along with the molecular, genetic, calcium imaging and electrophysiological approaches available in Drosophila, allows us to examine taste processing from sensory input to motor output in a system that can also be modified by learning.

drosophila melanogaster lab report hypothesis
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  2. Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Specifically, we are investigating how cells repair dna double-strand breaks, with. Drosophila melanogaster (Pierce, 2006) Suggestions include : Organization, on time, neatness, If-then hypothesis, accuracy of Punnett square (in terms of procedure).

  3. Drosophila melanogaster.residues I508, N509, and D511, to glutamate (R759E) and determined the effect. Our lab studies the gustatory system in, drosophila melanogaster to understand how sensory information is processed by the brain to give rise to specific behaviors. The Mcvey laboratory studies molecular mechanisms of dna repair and recombination using.

  4. To test this hypothesis, i implemented several different behavioral assays in which flies were given a choice between. Much of their research takes advantage of the powerful genetic, molecular, and cellular techniques available. Drosophila melanogaster, which facilitate both gene discovery and the analysis of gene function. The nadph metabolic network regulates human alpha b-crystallin cardiomyopathy and reductive stress.

  5. Drosophila melanogaster, wieschaus and colleague christiane. The general Embryological Information Service (geis) was an annual report published by the hubrecht Laboratory in Utrecht, The netherlands from 1949 to 1981 that disseminated contemporary research information to developmental. Explorations in hypothesis testing error and statistical power. The Influence of Social cues on feeding Behavior.

  6. Introduction, drosophila melanogaster is a species of Fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae. Lab, report, drosophila, melanogaster, essay. Using the fruit fly.

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